Operators

Operators in TorqueScript behave very similarly to operators in real world math and other programming languages. You should recognize quite a few of these from math classes you took in school, but with small syntactical changes. The rest of this section will explain the syntax and show a brief example, but we will cover these in depth in later guides.

Arithmetic Operators

These are your basic math ops.

Operator Name Example Explanation
* multiplication $a * $b Multiply $a and $b.
/ division $a / $b Divide $a by $b.
% modulo $a % $b Remainder of $a divided by $b.
+ addition $a + $b Add $a and $b.
- subtraction $a - $b Subtract $b from $a.
++

auto-increment

(post-fix only)

$a++ Increment $a.
--

auto-decrement

(post-fix only)

$b-- Decrement $b.

 

Quote

++$a is illegal. The value of $a++ is that of the incremented variable: auto-increment is post-fix in syntax, but pre-increment in sematics (the variable is incremented, before the return value is calculated). This behavior is unlike that of C and C++.

Quote

--$b is illegal. The value of $a-- is that of the decremented variable: auto-decrement is post-fix in syntax, but pre-decrement in sematics (the variable is decremented, before the return value is calculated). This behavior is unlike that of C and C++.

 

 

Relational Operators

Used in comparing values and variables against each other.

Operator Name Example Explanation
< Less than $a < $b 1 if $a is less than $b
> More than $a > $b 1 if $a is greater than $b
<= Less than or Equal to $a <= $b 1 if $a is less than or equal to $b
>= More than or Equal to $a >= $b 1 if $a is greater than or equal to $b
== Equal to $a == $b 1 if $a is equal to $b
!= Not equal to $a != $b 1 if $a is not equal to $b
! Logical NOT !$a 1 if $a is 0
&& Logical AND $a && $b 1 if $a and $b are both non-zero
|| Logical OR $a || $b 1 if either $a or $b is non-zero
$= String equal to $c $= $d 1 if $c equal to $d.
!$= String not equal to $c !$= $d 1 if $c not equal to $d.

Bitwise Operators

Used for comparing and shifting bits.

Operator Name Example Explanation
~ Bitwise complement ~$a flip bits 1 to 0 and 0 to 1
& Bitwise AND $a & $b composite of elements where bits in same position are 1
| Bitwise OR $a | $b composite of elements where bits 1 in either of the two elements
^ Bitwise XOR $a ^ $b composite of elements where bits in same position are opposite
<< Left Shift $a << 3 element shifted left by 3 and padded with zeros
>> Right Shift $a >> 3 element shifted right by 3 and padded with zeros

Assignment Operators

Used for setting the value of variables.

Operator Name Example Explanation
= Assignment $a = $b; Assign value of $b to $a
op= Assignment Operators $a op= $b; Equivalent to $a = $a op $b, where op can be any of: * / % + - & | ^ << >>

 

Quote

The value of an assignment is the value being assigned, so $a = $b = $c is legal.

 

String Operators

There are special values you can use to concatenate strings and variables. Concatenation refers to the joining of multiple values into a single variable. The following is the basic syntax:

"string 1" operation "string 2"

 

You can use string operators similarly to how you use mathematical operators (=, +, -, *). You have four operators at your disposal:

Operator Name Example Explanation
@ String concatenation $c @ $d Concatenates strings $c and $d into a single string. Numeric literals/variables convert to strings.
NL New Line $c NL $d Concatenates strings $c and $d into a single string separated by new-line. Such a string can be decomposed with getRecord()
TAB Tab $c TAB $d Concatenates strings $c and $d into a single string separated by tab. Such a string can be decomposed with getField()
SPC Space $c SPC $d Concatenates strings $c and $d into a single string separated by space. Such a string can be decomposed with getWord()

Miscellaneous Operators

General programming operators.

Operator Name Example Explanation
? : Conditional x ? y : z Evaluates to y if x equal to 1, else evaluates to z
[] Array element $a[5] Synonymous with $a5
( ) Delimiting, Grouping

t2dGetMin(%a, %b)

if ( $a == $b )

($a+$b)*($c-$d)

Argument list for function call

Used with if, for, while, switch keywords

Control associativity in expressions

{} Compound statement

if (1) {$a = 1; $b = 2;}

function foo() {$a = 1;}

Delimit multiple statements, optional for if, else, for, while

Required for switch, datablock, new, function

, Listing

t2dGetMin(%a, %b)

%M[1,2]

Delimiter for arguments
:: Namespace Item::onCollision() This definition of the onCollision() function is in the Item namespace
. Field/Method selection

%obj.field

%obj.method()

Select a console method or field
// Single-line comment // This is a comment Used to comment out a single line of code
/* */ Multi-line comment

/*This is a a

multi-line

comment*/

Used to comment out multiple consecutive lines

/* opens the comment, and */ closes it

 

Quote

There is no “comma operator”, as defined in C/C++; $a = 1, $b = 2; is a parse error.